17th Amendment ~
of the U.S. Constitution


What is the 17th Amendment?

The 17th Amendment was ratified by ¾ of the States as required by law to amend the U.S. Constitution, on April 8, 1913. What the 17th Amendment accomplished was a complete overhaul of half of the Congressional  election process. The Amendment changed the election of U.S. Senators to a direct election by the American people. Yes, prior to the 17th Amendment Senators were not voted into office by the American People.

The U.S. Constitution was adopted in 1788  and since that time prior to 1913, Senators were chosen by individual State Legislatures, who were directly elected by the states populace. The Founding Fathers wrote the provision in Article I, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution:

“The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.”

The purpose for the election of Senators by State Legislatures was meant to be at the behest of the will of the States and Senators were sent to Washington to vote on their behalf. Senators who voted to increase Federalism and not protect the rights of States could then be replaced.

The framers structured our Government as a representative republic with three branches of Government, not a pure democracy. The people and their elected representatives were to possess the supreme power, hence a Republic with fair and equal representation of the People, States, and Federal Government

  • Presidents are elected by an Electoral College representing the electorate.
  • ·The House of Representatives are the direct voice of the people, elected by the people, and closest to the people. This is why the number of House Representatives in Congress is abundant and proportioned according to State population. As of  this writing the number of House Members stands at 435.  

Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution: The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one.”

  • The Senate consists of only 100 Senators, 2 per state. The framers designed the second half of the Legislative Branch to have a fundamentally different roll to serve than that of the Peoples House. The Senate in contrast was intended to be the States House, where Senators used their one vote to speak on behalf of the States they represented and also as a buffer against the growth and power of the Federal Government.

Why was the 17th Amendment Adopted?

The 17th Amendment was in response to an outcry from the people and states whose Senate representation was stalled do to partisan deadlock in the State Legislatures for weeks, months and even years. In addition allegations of treason, corruption and bribery of Legislatures by special interests to gain Federal influence and favor were rampant. Consequently, States rights were being trumped by powerful and financially abundant organizations, and the movement for of the 17th Amendment with direct elections of Senators was born. The momentum increased year after year following the end of the American Civil War and grounded solidly early in the 20th Century. But came to fruition during the Presidency of Woodrow Wilson.

The 17th Amendment Timeline

  • 1866, Congress passes a Federal law to require certain rules the State Legislatures must abide by when electing Senators, in an attempt to stop the deadlock votes.
  • 1896, The Populist Party runs on direct elections of Senators by the American People.
  • 1906, William Randolph Hearst takes on the cause of Senate corruption as the owner of “The Cosmopolitan Magazine” with scathing publish articles.
  • 1907, The State of Oregon leads the way in championing a way around the 17th Amendment by allowing the populace to choose a Senator and direct the State Legislatures to appoint their choice.
  • 1912, May 31, the 17th Amendment is passed by Congress.
  • 1913, April 8, the States ratify the 17th Amendment.
  • 1914, The first one-third of Senators is elected directly by the People.

Should the 17th Amendment be repealed?

The original framework  of the Constitution allowed the states to have a proper say in National policy but the 17th Amendment altered the very fabric of the balance of power between State and Federal Governments, which was meticulously debated by the founders prior to the writing of the Constitution.

The direction has continued to shift over the decades in favor of Federalism, an unintended consequence of the progression of the Amendments passing. After all, who doesn’t regularly witness Senators from their home state casting votes in favor of large Federal programs, regulations and taxes in direct opposition to the best interests of the State and constituents they represent.

Even though a movement from some has surfaced in recent years to repeal the 17th Amendment, there is no definitive way of knowing what the difference would have been without its passage or the effects and consequences of repealing it now, more than 100 years later. Others suggest term limits for Senators as the solution and that debate is moving forward and quite popular among a high percentage of the America People. But for now the 17th Amendment is the Constitutional Law of the United States and term limits for Senators is not.

 In this modern world of politics, I can’t imagine any diligent voter agreeing to give up the right to cast a vote for their U.S. Senator, would you?

17th Amendment Full Text

The 17th Amendment modified Article I, section 3, of the Constitution as follows:

“The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, that the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.”



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The history of liberty is the history of resistance. The history of liberty is a history of the limitation of governmental power, not the increase of it."
~ Woodrow Wilson

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